Poultry fencing isn't usually covered in books about keeping chickens, and yet it is a fundamental requirement if you are fencing off an area for your poultry, rather than buying a pre-fabricated run to attach to your chicken coop.
It's a sad moment, even scary when you discover you have been visited by a fox. Foxes can be cruel to us as poultry keepers and as well as the heartache of losing birds, there is also the financial loss. When foxes are short of food or are feeding young, they will hunt during the daytime. A determined fox, can run up and over a 5 foot fence if there is a rigid enough top. Foxes and Badgers will easily dig under a fence that isn't buried or doesn't have an electric wire to protect it so it is best to build a secure run to house your poultry in from day one!
In this artical, I say 'chicken fencing' or 'chicken netting', but the same conditions apply for any kind of poultry which is why I gave it the title of 'poultry fencing'. Ultimately the job of the fencing is to keep predators out and whatever poultry you keep in.
Keeping poultry in, isn't normally as much of a problem as keeping predators out. Separating chickens, ducks or geese usually only needs low fencing. There are exceptions, some light breeds can fly extremely well (Leghorns for example are very flighty) but the average hen can be kept behind a waist high fence and the odd escapee can have a wing clipped.
Keeping predators out requires better fencing. The options really come down to:
To stop a large fox from running up and over a fence, it has to be at least 1.8 M (6ft) high. If you don't want a fence this high then you can either turn the top outwards, or run a single electric strand along the top where it is at least out of reach of children but I wouldn't consider a fence that's lower than about 1.5 M (5ft) where there are foxes.
Foxes will dig under a fence if the ground is soft enough. Badgers are very good diggers and can also rip at chicken netting to tear it. The bottom of a poultry fence, should have the wire buried 8-12 inches in the ground and then turned outwards by about 8. The length of wire you bury really depends on the type of soil and how level the ground is. Clay soils are the hardest to dig, sandy soils are very easy, so use some common sense when burying the netting. If it was easy for you to dig, it will be easy for a fox. Ideally put bricks / rubble on top of the turned out wire before covering it back over with soil.
If there is a problem with badgers taking poultry in the area then it is better to overlay an extra piece of netting at the bottom. This is still buried in the ground but overlapped at the bottom of the fence so the double layer helps to stop badgers (and sometimes foxes) from tearing the wire.
If you're trying to patch up a fence, you may find boarding the bottom of it with gravel boards successful. This means a fox has to dig deeper before he can squeeze underneath it. I would still try to turn the wire out though, even if it means laying the wire on to the surface of a lawn for 24 inches and pegging it down. The grass will grow through the wire and the action of earth worms moving soil means that it will gradually sink beneath the surface of the grass and dissappear from view.
There are numerous suppliers of chicken netting. Farmers merchants tend to call this 'rabbit wire' since it is sold to fence fields of young saplings or other critical crops to prevent rabbits from getting in. The netting is usually 50mm across the widest part of the hole. It is hot dip galvanised to stop it from rusting.
Not all chicken netting is equal! Some cheap netting tends to use thinner strands of wire and as well as coming in 10, 25 and 50 Meter lengths, they also come in various widths of 600 (2ft), 900 (3ft), 1200 (4ft) and 1800mm (6ft). If you are going to bury the wire to stop foxes, remember to allow at least 450mm (18") plus the height of your fence.
When I am constructing my chicken fencing, I normally use two 4ft lengths of chicken netting that is overlapped by 150mm (6") and woven with a single galvanised strand of fencing wire at the join. This gives enough height to bury the wire and provide either a 6ft fence or 5ft fence with outward overhang.
If there isn't a fox problem, or you are looking for a movable netting solution then the Omlet Chicken Netting works really well. This will not keep foxes out. however it can keep your chickens in a given area (or off a given area such as a vegetable patch). I tested and reviewed this here: Omlet Chicken Netting.
As I have seen written on the side of many a fencing contractor's van "your fence is your first line of defense" and they are words that ring true, especially where poultry are concerned. The second defence you have of course is your chicken coop. Predators will be able to spend longer under the cover of darkness trying to get in to your run and if they do, should then be thwarted by a secure coop. ALWAYS lock your chickens up at night. If you are sometimes late getting home or forget to go out to lock them up as it gets dark, consider a VSB automatic door closer which will automatically close the pop hole once it is dark and your chickens are safely inside.
Low fences with electric wires on the outside can be installed around larger areas. Whilst a fox can easily jump a 1m fence or run up and over a 1.5m fence, he will normally investigate a fence first to find the easiest way to cross it. In doing so, an electric wire at nose height will usually get touched. Most foxes only need to touch this once and receive a shock (which is in fact an unpleasant feeling due to the muscles contracting and is not harmful) and then will not attempt to cross the fence in future.
Electric wires are normally placed at the top of the fence to stop climbing, the middle at fox nose height (the most likely one to be touched) and at the bottom to prevent digging.
Pig / sheep fencing is the cheapest to have installed by a contractor but it is a little low so needs additional electified wires adding to the top and as well as a wire at fox nose height requires one a few inches from the ground to stop digging. Any grass touching this lower wire will leak current to earth and wet grass will soon short the fence out, making it ineffective so you will need to keep clearing the grass underneath.
Tundra produce a good range of wires that will last a lifetime. Their commercial poultry wire (part number LHT15/158/8) folds at the bottom to stop digging and has a finished height of 1.25m. This means the lower electric wire doesn't need to be as close to the ground, making it easier to maintain and by the time the fence is finished with a top wire, gives an overall height of 1.3m. The photo to the right shows this wire which in this installation shows the wire turned inwards rather than out. The grass eventually grows through the wire locking it in place.
Do you have any fencing tips? How high is your chicken fence and does it stop foxes? Please let me know below.